Complete Information On Balo Disease With Treatment And Prevention

Balo’s disease is a rare progressive form of multiple sclerosis with a strong viral association that primarily affects young adults. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an instigative disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Predominantly, it is a disease of the “white matter” tissue. The white matter is made up of nerve fibres which are responsible for transmitting communication signals both internally within the CNS and between the CNS and the nerves supplying rest of the body. In people affected by MS, patches of damage called plaques or lesions appear in seemingly random areas of the CNS white matter.

Balo Disease is different in that it tends to be evenly progressive. Symptoms may include headache, seizures, gradual paralysis, involuntary muscle spasms, and cognitive loss. The symptoms of Balo Disease vary, according to the areas of the brain that are affected. Symptoms may progress rapidly over several weeks or more slowly over two to three years. Symptoms may progress over a period ranging from several weeks to 2-3 years. Often, disability and death occur within months although recently there have been reports of a self-limiting form of Balo’s disease with some remission.

Balo’s disease is most common in Chinese and Philippino populations. Baló-like lesions may either dissolve over time or transform into an MS-like lesion. Balo disease are often controlled with corticosteroids. In cases where a viral trigger is suspected, antiviral medications are often used. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy has also shown benefits.Immunoglobulins are proteins manufactured in the body that the immune system uses to produce antibodies and various factors, which are used to communicate with immune system cells and modify the immune reaction.

There are 4 immunoglobulin subtypes, immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG or gamma globulin) and immunoglobulin E (IgE). Mitoxantrone has shown positive effects in patients with a secondary progressive and progressive relapsing courses. It is moderately effective in reducing the progression of the disease and the frequency of relapses in patients in short-term follow-up. Glatiramer medication is an alternative to beta interferons if you have relapsing remitting MS.

Back To The Future!

We started writing articles on marketing/advertising communication around 2006, so we felt that we should conduct a review of the changes that are taking place since the advent of new technology and the growth of the Internet as an advertising medium.

So what changes have taken place in commercial communication?

Simply put …nothing. Advertising Agencies are still dancing on the head of a pin called a 30’ TV commercial. The really terrifying aspect of all this is that advertising agencies have come up with no new ideas as to how to combat clutter; or even customer mistrust and outright avoidance of traditional advertising.

As somebody said to us the other day the attitude within advertising agencies still is “The answer is a TV commercial, – what’s your question?”

And if they can then load the TV production cost by hiring an outlandishly expensive Hollywood movie director, so much the better. It satisfies all the egos involved, but, and here is the real weird thing, the consumer couldn’t care less about who directs the commercial, all they wanted was the right information that would allow them to like and need the product.

Junk Mail is alive and growing.

Who ever said “The more things change the more they remain the same” was spot on when applying that maxim to the advertising world!

Clutter. That dreadful word that came into vogue in the late 1960s and was applied to the proliferation of advertising messages the consumer could be exposed to during the course of his or her working day. More accurately the term was “commercial clutter”, however we much prefer “meaningless noise”

Well the growth of digital TV and Radio, together with the proliferation of TV channels it means that “clutter” has become a downright deluge of information…of all sorts, and still the Advertising World has no answer to the problem, and, frankly, they don’t want it to end. To the advertising agencies “commercial clutter” means bigger profits, so stuff the Client and lets get more messages out there!

We live in an over informed society and people everywhere are turning away from the commercial information spewed out from all media, it is of no interest or relevance to them at all!

Remember when the Internet and on line marketing were going to spell the end of the direct mail business? Well, it hasn’t exactly worked out that way.

Over the last year (2007), United States marketers sent more than 114 billion pieces of direct mail – catalog’s, credit cards solicitations, coupons and the like – an increase of roughly 15% from five years ago, according to the United States Postal Service. And in the last year, for the first time, the volume of bulk mail, which is all direct mail, exceeded first class.

As the world becomes more digital, there is need for tangible experiences. And there’s nothing like a piece of paper.

From the consumers point of view there is some relief from this deluge of information, e-mail from marketers can be blocked by spam filters, and reaching customers vie e-mail often requires them to agree to be on a company’s solicitation list. Direct mail, on the other hand, lands in mailboxes without an invitation, but does not seem to be considered as annoying by consumers, in part because it often is related to their past purchases.

Ad agencies are starting to change as well in response to the growth in direct mail.

Most companies did not even include spending on direct mail or promotions as an advertising expense, instead lumping them into general sales expenses and calling such spending “below the line.”

It was anything that was not considered important enough for the board of directors or C.E.O. to know about, because all they were ever talking about before at cocktail parties was television commercials.

Ad executives expect the boom in direct mail to continue.

However among consumers a major change was underway best summed up by “We are immune to advertising. Just forget it”
That was said a few years ago as part of the Cluetrain Manifesto, true then, even truer to day!

Companies need to come down from their Ivory Towers and talk to the people with whom they hope to create relationships.
Public Relations does not relate to the public. Companies are deeply afraid of their markets.

Up until a few years ago advertising was the province of a privileged few to the passive many. Now the ownership of moving images has passed into the hands of practically everybody and the articulation of moving images has passed into the hands of everybody with access to a phone, laptop or digital camera. We can now have our say.”

In essence, the behavior of the audience is moving from passive to active participation so that TV watching or listening to radio in the future will be a very different and less sedentary experience than it has been in the past 80 years.
Ultimate power isn’t with brand owners or even with broadcasters, and most certainly doesn’t exist with the Advertising Agencies at all! It’s with the viewer. And it’s the on/off switch.

Given that the traditional interruption model of TV advertising is no longer as effective as it was a decade ago, and coupled with the rise of personal video recorders (PVR) that permit viewers to record programs free of advertising. Broadcast sponsorship is potentially more attractive for brand owners than traditional advertising.
As a result, brand owners and their agencies have started to explore other hybrid-broadcast sponsorship models, such as product placement, advertiser-funded programming (AFP), as well as controlling their own TV and radio channels.

However, be careful what you believe on the Internet: there’s a growing chance that you re being hoaxed by a cynical PR firm, here comes yet another trend that is far more pernicious. The abuse of the Internet by PR agencies and their Clients!

Effective Interpersonal Communication With Nlp

Our communication with others usually starts with our thoughts, resulting in words, tonality and body language. There are many ways to define “thoughts”, and one of them is how we use our senses internally.

We use our senses outwardly to perceive the world, and inwardly to represent experience to ourselves. When recalling experiences, such as a time you went to the beach, what appears in your mind first? Maybe a picture of the beach would appear. Perhaps you hear the sounds of the waves and children playing, or the feeling of how relaxed you were just sitting by the sea.

When you ask a group of students to describe their form teacher, you could get a variety of answers. One student might recall the hairstyle and dressing first, followed by the teacher’s voice, and how he or she feels about the teacher’s lessons. Another might first recall that the teacher has a very deep and powerful voice, followed by how the teacher always makes the class feel interesting, and lastly, how the teacher looks.

This method of taking in and storing information in our minds, through our five senses (Seeing, hearing, feeling, taste and smell) is known as Representational Systems in Neuro Linguistic Programming. Having different preferred representational systems is also one reason why we encounter difficulties in getting our messages across to others sometimes.

If you are a visual person whose dominant sense is seeing, you will likely speak in a manner that include many pictures and visual words. A kinesthetic person on the other hand, will speak with many feeling words. Also, they will find it easier to relate to feeling words as compared to visual words.

So if you want to build rapport with others and get them to understand you easily, take responsibility for the way you communicate and use words that are suitable for their preferred representational systems.

A Look At The Different Levels Of Itil Certification

Information Technology Infrastructure Library generally referred to as ITIL is basically comprised of ideas and practices in order to carry out IT operations, IT service management and for the sake of the advancement of IT development. It was created by Central Computer and Telecommunication Agency (U.K) because of the increase in reliance on IT for fulfilling business needs.

Information System Examination Board or ISEB is an association, which provides the ITIL Certification. It came into being in 1967 and is presently running under the patronage of British Computer Society. It trains the representatives for ITIL foundation certificate. ISEB aspires to improve the standard of industry, to support career development and give the employers a competitive advantage by offering them industry-acknowledged qualification, which evaluates proficiency and performance in several aspects of Information System, IS.

EXIN is a Dutch-based self-governing company, which offers ITIL certification. EXIN’s key purpose is to make improvements in the Information Communication Technology, ICT area, and create ICT experts by examinations and ITIL certification. It takes care of the educational needs of those who wish to qualify for ITIL certification, and arranges examinations in IT field.

The individuals must be well prepared for the test. Some ITIL certifications demand work experience in the relevant area, because it makes the course work easier to follow, which otherwise is quite difficult to understand. There are three levels to get ITIL certification.

a. ITIL foundation certification in IT service management
b. Practitioner certificate in IT service management
c. ITIL Service Manager Certification

ITIL foundation: it is the very first and basic level of ITIL qualifications. It involves all the basic information related to ITIL Service support and delivery. The important terms and terminology and all the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of ITIL are studied extensively at this level. As mentioned earlier it is a basic requirement for the next two levels of ITIL certification.

ITIL Practitioner: the qualification of this level decides how well you know and can confidently apply particular methods in IT Service Management. It is considered as valuable evidence of the practical knowledge of a person in some areas of Service Management.

ITIL Service Manager Certification: this is the highest level of ITIL qualifications and is meant for knowledgeable and well informed professionals who regularly engage in Service Management activities. A certified professional is considered to be skillful in ITIL, both in terms of theory and practice.

Mass Communication Careers

Medical and engineering are passé. Today’s youth are looking for new and exciting careers. One such field that is rising these days is media and mass communication. Although, journalism has always been around but with a sudden spurt in the number of news channels and newspapers, the demand for mass communication experts has increased manifold. A lot of students are looking to pursue courses in mass communication and acquire skill sets that will help them make a career in this field. Apart from journalism, advertising, modeling, acting, jockeying etc also fall under the same category and are gaining popularity. The education scenario is also bright as many good institutes are offering full-time and part-time courses in media, films and mass communication. The courses can be pursued both at degree and diploma level.

Mass communication clearly implies that it involves communicating to the masses through different modes. According to the target audience and the message to be broadcast, the media is selected. The information that has to transferred could be news or entertainment or both. Print, Television and radio are the most popular mediums through which one can communicate with the masses. Apart from these three, Internet is a fast upcoming medium gaining popularity in recent years, though it mainly caters to the young and educated audience.

Mass communication is a collective term; it has various streams in it. For instance, you could go for journalism, advertising, radio jockey, production, publishing, anchoring, film-making etc. There is a plenty of courses to choose from. Mass communication is more suitable for the individuals who are outspoken, extrovert, bold and passionate about their profession. Today, media is a powerful industry in India and has an influence over large part of Indian population. This offers a wide scope of media with number of exciting opportunities.

You could find dozens of TV channels that have come up in the market like- news, entertainment, infotainment etc. Other than that, print media companies have also developed remarkably and FM radio channels have covered a large part. All these developments invite vast opportunities in mass communication field. Mass comm graduates can find rewarding career opportunities in news channels, leading newspapers, FM stations, production houses, TV soaps and many more.

The skills acquired through a mass communication education are not confined within any particular job scope and are applicable across a broad range of careers. Students graduating with a degree in mass communication can find employment as journalists, editors of publishing houses, public relations and corporate communications professionals, as well as fields like advertising, event management and even marketing.

Other than the communications sector, the global nature of the skills truly transcends all careers and ensures that even the business world is thrown open before the young mass communication graduate. In fact, once you’ve acquired great writing, verbal communication, thinking and analytical skills, there will be no limit. The broad expertise acquired through the mass communication course allows the student to adapt and transform his skills to the requirements of any career.

Formal Or Informal Communication Break Downs And The 3 Levels Of Verbal Communication

In my experience on the topic of formal or informal communication I have observed that

1) Most communication breakdowns happen because of misunderstandings

2) And misunderstandings happen when communication is out of context

Communication is always “contextual” whether it is formal or informal, verbal or nonverbal. Being aware of the contextual part of communication is the responsibility of everyone to think before sending or receiving. It means to always bring into the picture the recognition of the immediate surrounding of a given issue or matter being communicated.

When faced with a communication breakdown, the question for us to always ask is this: “What is the context within which this communication situation is taking place?”

As in a book where the text is the actual group of words being read, the context is the surrounding information, the details, the story, the places, the characters, etc.

So, where is the conversation within the context of the issue? Is the problem happening at the sender’s end of the communication or at the receiver’s end? Where is the misunderstanding? Then focus your communication recovery there.

Communication is never independent of context whether it is formal or informal.

The Three Levels of Verbal Communication.

Before we can improve verbal communication and increase its effectiveness, we need to understand how it works and where the players fit within that communication.

First, when we communicate, there is always a sender (speaker) and a receiver (listener).

Second, the communication itself contains 3 elements:

A) the Information being communicated such as issue, topic, subject, instruction, opinion etc.

B) the Means by which this information is being communicated (verbal, nonverbal, written, using telephone, face to face, letter, book, etc.)

C) the Way in which the information is being communicated (how we use our words, tone of voice, writing style, organized or disorganized manner, etc.)

Both sides have three levels of Active Responsibility to process the activities used in communication:

Level I:

This is where the actual exchange of communication takes place between the sender and receiver which contains the above three elements.

Level II:

This is where the Translating and Interpreting of that communication happens. This is done by the thought processes of each the Sender and the Receiver according to each his/her experiences, and frame
of references in their various walks of life (business, personal, moral, ethical, etc.).

This is where the major complications of communication arise (good or bad connection). If everyone thought the same, saw things the same way or reacted in the same manner, communication would be
straightforward. However, it doesn’t happen that way.

Level III:

This is where we get and give Feedback, Understanding and Awareness:.


Both sides are responsible to see that the communication has been Sent and Received as intended. This is identified by asking the right questions at the right times. “Can you please repeat the steps for closing the shop, to make sure I didn’t leave anything out?” “Let me run through the requirements as I understand you’ve outlined them”. Both sides ask for feedback when needed.


Effective communication requires a common Understanding between the parties communicating. The Sender Transmits with Understanding to the Receiver. The Receiver Interprets with Understanding from the Sender.


Finally, each side requires an Awareness of the many interferences also going on, such as cultural differences, linguistics, diction, clarity of speech and expression, verbal, nonverbal parts, etc.

Whether we are in Formal or Informal Communication, we are all subject and vulnerable to break downs. Understanding this and the 3 Levels of Verbal Communication that we can watch for will help us improve and perfect as much as we can our own communication as well as help other to communicate better. /dmh

Diane M. Hoffmann is the founder of Hoffmann-Rondeau Communications and the web site which is the home of free articles and tips, her e-books “Improve Communication, Verbal and Nonverbal” and “Improve Communication, Organization and Training” as well as her 296-page printed book “Contextual Communication, Organization and Training”. Article copyright(c)2009/10/11 Diane M. Hoffmann. You may reprint this article making sure to include this bio with no changes.

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Informal Communication – How It Differs From Formal Communication

Both informal communication and formal communication take place in any organization whether it be business or our personal family lives. But we need to recognize the difference.

Informal communication is casual and spontaneous, whereas formal communication is more thought-out and prepared from learned experiences or organized training that present rules and conventions authoritated by business and formal etiquette.

Informal communication comes from communication activities outside of those formally learned at home through discipline, or at school through education, or in business through our own personal experiences and formal training.

It falls under the social communication of grapevines and rumors, casual conversations and inter-relational activities outside of the formal or public arenas.

We do not behave the same way at work as we do at home or at play. I always say that people are at their best at work. We really don’t know someone until we’ve stayed with them outside of work for a few days-or a few hours even, with some people.

Informal communication may not be as reliant as formal communication where more accountability is expected. In an organizational setting, such as business, or association and the like, communication is connected with official status-quo or protocols of the formal channels of structure and culture which the line of manager/subordinate reporting system is expectedly accepted.

In order to understand informal communication, we need to understand formal communication and then realize that informal communication is what takes place without the formal addition of convention and ceremonies.

In business the different forms of formal communication include departmental functionality, activities taking place within meeting and conference settings, verbal and written communication through telephone, memos and bulletins, etc.

It is safe to also recognize that informal communication may be vulnerable to being deceptive and imprecise in its casualness – conscious or unconscious. In a formal setting, people take the time to recognize the consequences of transmitting any wrong or incomplete information. But in an informal setting, the quality of communication may be affected by the more relaxed or careless attitude or behaviour.

However, both formal and informal communication is found in an organization, depending on the level of business experience and training one possesses in his or her personal life. An organization can make efficient use of informal communication by confirming and affirming that which is being communicated by the untrained or less trained individual.

Informal communication, like formal communication can be expressed verbally or non-verbally by words, tone of voice, signs such as glances and gestures and even silence. For the purpose of effective communication, one needs to identify and affirm anything that may be communicated, if unsure of the true meaning behind the communicator./dmh

Diane M. Hoffmann is the founder of Hoffmann-Rondeau Communications and the web site which is the home of her e-books “Improve Communication, Verbal and Nonverbal” and “Improve Communication, Organization and Training” as well as her 296-page printed book “Contextual Communication, Organization and Training”. You may reprint this article making sure to include this bio with no changes.

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Informal Communication

Besides the flow of information through the standard channels, in every organization a flow of informal information also exists. In an army as well as in business there are many invisible informal information channels which are important for the mutual understanding and co-operation. Informal contacts between colleagues are a countermeasure against the ubiquitous bureaucracy. When there is a positive atmosphere, employees often take the initiative to redress a situation. In this way many mistakes are spontaneously fixed. Frictions and problems are quickly spotted and rectified.

Management should stimulate these informal communication channels because it is impossible to cover everything by means of procedures. Good managers understand this and will try to keep these channels open or even create them, like Montgomery did (see case The Phantom System). Such informal communication channels perform even better when the focus and the strategic goals of the company are understood throughout the entire organization.

Two cases:

Case The Phantom System

General Montgomery, Supreme Commander of Eighth Army in North Africa during WW II (and later in Europe), received – like every Commander – the routine situation reports on a daily basis, which his staff prepared, next to those from the different units of his vast army. But he did not want to only rely on these routine channels of information. Montgomery took the revolutionary step of establishing his “Phantom” system of liaison officers. These were carefully selected young soldiers chosen for their bravery, their initiative, their manners and their independence. This corps d’élite had unusual powers. They had carte blanche to travel anywhere and observe anything, but had no power of command. They were the eyes and the ears of the commander. Each morning they drove out to the farthermost parts of the front, using motorcycles, jeeps, or aircraft (Piper Cubs) and then returned to report directly to Montgomery late in the afternoon. They just told him what they saw. In this way Montgomery, in addition to the routine daily reports from the different units, also received the latest first-hand eye witness view from the entire front.

Despite the special position of these young men there was never any friction between them and the units they visited, because of the manner in which Montgomery handled this group of liaison officers and the information they gathered.

A British Carton Cylinder Manufacturer

The sales director of a British manufacturer which made carton cylinders for the protection and transportation of documents and was also specialized in manufacturing products like cigarette filters, carton cylinders for batteries and so on, instructed the drivers of his delivery trucks that when they delivered to customers they should watch to see if any trucks of competitors were also at the delivery yards of his customers. They reported to him which competitors they saw and because of their friendly contacts built up with the customer’s personnel over the years, they could sometimes even give him detailed information about what products were delivered. One day the board of directors discussed the outsourcing of their logistics to a professional trucking company. The sales director protested vehemently against this decision because then he would lose his carefully developed eyes and ears. After explaining his motives the board withdrew their decision. To systematically obtain important information about the competition, this director had unwittingly created his own “Phantom” system, just like Montgomery did.

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Major in Information Communications Technology

According to Steve Ballmer, Microsoft CEO, “the number one benefit of information technology is that it empowers people to do what they want to do. It lets people be creative. It lets people be productive. It lets people learn things they didn’t think they could learn before, and so in a sense it is all about potential.” In accordance with this conviction, and in the face of rapidly evolving modern times, one can be assured of the benefits of a proper education in the field of Information Communication Technology.

A major in Information Communication Technology is essentially the key to opening doors around the world for quicker, more efficient exchange of knowledge. Today, our world is truly global; global in its true sense, as individuals from a rural village in Sub-Saharan Africa are able to communicate with those in the commercialized city of Manhattan. In addition to communication, these technological advancements have assisted us in boosting commerce within underdeveloped countries, including India and Brazil. Though much of the 6 billion people on this Earth are living in unacceptable conditions, with nearly 3 billion who survive on less than two dollars a day, Information Communication Technology is enabling some of these disparities to diminish. For example, a developing country in Asia can make up for several years of underdevelopment simply by jumping ahead now with innovative ideas. By keeping up with the current technological trends, a country can practically leap out of devastation. Although it is very unlikely that an impoverished country would have the resources to focus on inventing such technology, the most pragmatic solution is investing in one’s future, particularly through education.

We are far past of the age when information had to travel by ship, for several months, before a single message was conveyed. Now, one can simply be “wired” and, with the phenomenon of the Internet, connect with practically anyone around the globe. The marvels of this medium are even more surprising when one considers the expeditious developments that have taken place in a time period of less than 20 years; from a time when the Internet was nonexistent to a time when one virtually cannot exist without access to the Internet.

While the Information Communication Technology industry is constantly expanding, demands for individuals well acquainted with such topics are increasing, perhaps more rapidly, due to each country’s desire to excel and initiate projects in this field in an effort to compete in the global game of technology. With a professional background in Information Communication Technology, one is better trained to predict the trends of the future as well as prepare for those trends.

Every corporation in America, independent of its size, needs individuals qualified in the field of Information Communication Technology. A few of these professions include: network engineers, software developers, and data center managers. The best way to prepare for the future is by understanding the factors that influence the future, and thus predicting the necessary actions that will ease these stresses.

Sally is a dedicated writer for She is an expert in IT School Scholarships, Financial Aid, Career Advice, and most other things college related.

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